Quick Write

What is Integrity?

Integrity: 1. adherence to moral and ethical principles; soundness of moral character; honesty 2. the state of being whole, entire, or undiminished.

What does it mean to be a person of integrity? Are you a person of integrity?

Integrity and Hypocrisy

What is hypocrisy?

Hypocrisy: the practice of claiming to have moral standards or beliefs to which one’s own behavior does not conform; pretense.

Rep. Tim Murphy resigns from Congress after Allegedly asking a Woman to have Abortion.

Member of the Pro-Life Caucus

Fallacy Project

In small groups come up with an appropriate project for this class that helps you and us learn about fallacies.

  • Define the project.
  • Give the requirements.
  • Explain the steps.

Chapter 2 Critical Reading

Active Reading


  • Author: You can discern information from the author or the author bio.
  • Place of Publication: may reveal subject, style, and approach.
  • Title: May give an idea about the text.
  • Context: Consider the situational conditions the text was produced.
    • Context of production
    • Content of consumption
  • Skimming: Pay close attention to headings and subheadings. Look for the Thesis.
  • Thesis: The main point or major claim

The First and Last Rule

Authors place main points of emphasis at the beginning and ending of essays, paragraphs, and sentences.

Reading with a Careful Eye

Underline, highlight, or annotate the text. Read for the main points, or important points. Do not highlight everything.

Read with a purpose. Read to understand, question, and analyze the text.

“This; Therefore, That”

To arrive at a coherent thought or series of thoughts that will lead to a reasonable conclusion. Follow the text you are readings thoughts as well as your own before reaching a conclusion.

Define Terms and Concepts

Read carefully to how the terms and concepts are used in the argument. Define words and concepts.

Summarizing and Paraphrase

Summary: Say briefly what the whole adds up to.

Paraphrase: a word-by-word or phrase-by-phrase rewording of a text. A translation of the author’s language into your own.

Why summary and paraphrase?

  • validate the basis of your argument.
  • clarify the complex ideas contained in a text.
  • support your argument
  • lend authority to your voice
  • help you build new ideas from existing ideas on the topic.

Paraphrase, Patchwriting, and Plagiarism

Quoting: Copy word for word

Paraphrase: reword a point or idea.

Summarize: the main idea of a text.

Patchwriting: produce a medley of borrowed words and original words.

Plagiarism: Submitting the work of others intentionally or unintentionally as your own.

To avoid plagiarism, carefully track your notes, paraphrases, and summaries.

Strategies for Summarizing

Summarize paragraphs so you can follow the threads of the argument.

A summary can be a sentence, a paragraph, or a page long. Depends on how much room you have and how much you need to include.

Summary does not include your own thoughts.

Summaries can be for reading comprehension, but in essay writing the point is to assist your own argument.

Remember when writing a summary you are putting yourself into the author’s shoes.

Critical Summary

A longer summary that you intent to integrate into your own argument, and with your own ideas interjected.

  1. Introduce the summary.
  2. Explain the major point the source makes.
  3. Exemplify by offering one or more representative examples.
  4. Problematize by placing your assessment, analysis, and questions in the summary.
  5. Extend by tying the summary to your argument.

Quick Write

What is the purpose of college? Why are you in college?

Chapter 19 A College Education: What is its Purpose?

  1. 3 Reasons College Still Matters (463)
  2. No, It Doesn’t Matter What You Majored In (467)
  3. We Don’t Need More Humanities Majors (469)
  4. We Need More Humanities Majors (471)
  5. Why I Teach Plato to Plumbers (474)
  6. Mathandscience (477)
  7. Commencement Address, Kenyon College (480)

Annotated Bibliography

An annotated bib is a works cited or references page with additional information added to each citation. You begin with the correct reference citation for your sources. For this assignment we will have at least five sources.

Here is a good explanation of citations in MLA.

Here is the format:

Author(s). “Article Title.” Source, vol. #, no. #, season year, pp. xx-xx. Database, URL.


Kong, Les. “Business Sources for Education Majors.” Education Graduate Students Journal, vol. 75, no. 4, 2014, pp. 12-19. JSTORhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/52506788.

To each entry you will add the annotation, the paragraph or two that explains the source, why you are using it, and its reliability.

Each professor you will have in the future may have specific guidelines for what to include in an annotated bibliographic entry. Always follow their instructions.

For this assignment, you should include:

  1. Summary of Source, 2-4 sentences
  2. How you are using it in your report, 1-3 sentences
  3. Reliability of source, 1-3 sentences

In total, you should have a short paragraph, 4-10 sentences, explaining the three points above.


  • Annotated Bib 1
  • Rough Draft of Proposal
  • Chapter 3
  • Chapter 7