Syeda Zahra
Sefferino Ramos
English 1-B
14 September 2018
This paper is about the definition, background, causes and effects of Cybercrime. Firstly, let’s focus on the term crime itself, which is an offense that is punishable by law. The word cyber comes from computer, so this is a crime done via internet and computers. “The Council of Europe’s Cybercrime Treaty uses the term “Cybercrime” to refer to offences ranging from criminal activity against data to content and copyright infringement. However, Zeviar-Geese suggest that the definition is broader, including activities such as fraud, unauthorized access, child pornography, and cyberstalking”. This is an elaborated definition of Cybercrime which puts light on the types of cybercrime, from the article ‘on the definition and classification of cybercrime’. We are talking about this issue as it is growing every day and specialists depict, this is going to be the platform for world war 3. People do not usually take it seriously, yet this has taken and destroyed billions of lives. Soon it will be a story of every other house. Adults do not take it seriously as we still have the z generation alive whom are not indulged into computers and cyberspace to a big extent. The millennial generation is all about using computers, even a few months year old child is tech savvy. Computers are not easy to handle, and it’s not taught in schools to a big extent that people can secure themselves from being exposed to this form of crime. Social media and other technology based things are so addicting, that people often neglect the fact that this can be really dangerous. The sad part is that even our governments have not passed many laws and trials against this. It’s not even easy catching someone behind those smart devices. Cybercrime against Businesses talks about its immense growth, “Everyone agrees cybercrime affects everyone including governments, corporations, the public—According to its most recent study, security software manufacturer Symantec Corp. reports cybercrime is costing the world $110 billion every year.” Further in the article they mentioned more examples relating the heavy expenditure to control cybercrime.
Let’s start from the causes of cybercrime, so we can reflect upon it in a better way. People usually have misconceptions about cybercrime e.g. criminals are anonymous and cannot be tracked. In the article Cybercrime, Media and Insecurity: The shaping of public perceptions of cybercrime they are talking about this myth; “While it is true that individuals can use false identities to go online, one of the more stunning and frequently overlooked features about networked technologies is that every move online can be tracked and the ‘mouse droppings’ as they are called, leave a data trail behind. We are actually witnessing because we cannot hide any more, only disguise immediate identities and even then our online behavior patterns leave ‘signatures’ that can allegedly be traced with the right technology.” People are not well aware they are being traced and eventually they will be caught, makes them do this crime unfearfully. The other common myth is, that criminals go unpunished and get away with crime which is also discussed in the same article; “While it is important to note here that some types of Internet offending may be proceeded with under other bodies of law. Furthermore, not only is the nature of cybercrime victimization considerably different because there are more of them and over a broader area, but the example of ‘Operation Bot Roast’ illustrates, there are also relatively fewer offenders than at first appears because the technologies give criminals a wider reach.” The misconception of no laws against Cybercrime is making it spread rapidly, and also the unawareness of its affects and effects.
In addition, from an awareness standpoint, experts say it is important to get the business world, private individuals, and government organizations to understand the magnitude of the problem. Otherwise, the usual attitude is “we’ve never had a problem so it’s likely we won’t have one in the future.”, because cybercrime is not only effecting individuals but many other factors, in fact it’s a threat to big companies. “You need to add up losses due to corporate espionage, losses that can’t be quantified, losses from damage to a brand’s reputation, and so on,” says a McAfee spokesperson. He explains that the companies already go through a lot of loss and then comes in malicious activities, which can cost up to billions of dollars to retrieve their data. And, you never know if you are being hacked by your competitor, you can lose your entire business. Purdue University states “If the company discovers the intrusion an audit might determine the loss equals the cost cleanup and perhaps changing to new security software”, that means a lot of money and work, and no guarantee that it will not happen again. “And, for consumers, it is not only about what is lost through fraud with online banking; it is also about their digital assets”. It comes down to the value of data they lost and how much time and energy did it take for them to form that specific project. What if they have a deadline to submit it to another company, they are willing to sell it to or have a contract with?
Now let’s look into some effects on individuals specially our youth. “In 2004, half of U.S. youth surveyed stated that they or someone they knew had been victims or perpetrators of cyberbullying [National Crime Prevention Council (n.d.a)]. Being a victim of cyberbullying is a common and painful experience. Nearly 20 percent of teens had a cyberbully pretend to be someone else in order to trick them online, getting the victim to reveal personal information. Seventeen percent of teens were victimized by someone lying about them to others online. Thirteen percent of teens learned that a cyberbully was pretending to be them while communicating with someone else. Ten percent of teens were victimized by someone posting unflattering pictures of them online, without permission.” This proves that cybercrime can destroy young lives who are the future of our nation. Such bullying leaves a deep impact on one’s mental, especially when you are young it gets harder to cope up, as we are not mature enough to think through such traumatic incidents. Reasons there are so many suicidal cases every month, mainly females since they have a certain society codes to follow. And, people cannot relate to this as fortunately it’s not very common, they end up judging others and it turns into them taking their lives. That’s why awareness and controlling cybercrime is becoming a necessity e.g. the article, Prevalence, Psychological Impact, and Coping of Cyberbully Victims Among College Students states, “Cyberbully victimization was also associated with clinical symptomatology. Ybarra (2004) found that victims of cyberbullying, ages 10 through 17, endorsed more depressive symptoms than non-victims. Furthermore, Fauman (2008) identified common psychological consequences related to cyberbully victimization as depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and poor concentration, as well as a sense of helplessness and low self-esteem. Thomas (2006) also found anxiety, school phobia, depression, lowered self-esteem, emotional distress, and suicide were acknowledged as potential results of being a victim of cyberbullying among adolescents, ages 13 through 18.” Its every important to be aware of all kinds of cyber crimes taking place, and try to prevent yourself and the people in your surroundings from getting exposed to the monsters behind these high technology devices.

Annotated Bibliography
Gordon, Sarah, and Richard Ford. “On the Definition and Classification of Cybercrime.” Springer Link, Humana Press, 25 July 2006, link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11416-006-0015-z.
This source is about the definition and branches of cybercrime. It makes one aware of what cybercrime exactly is, and how is it a threat for us. I am using this as an introduction to my paper. And, this is a reliable source because it is a scholarly journal.
Ramona R. Rantala. Cybercrime against Businesses. (2005). http://www.justiceacademy.org/iShare/Library-BJS/CyberCrimes.pdf [Accessed 14 Sep. 2018].
This source explains the problems cybercrime creates for businesses. I will use it in my paper as an effect of cybercrime. This is a scholarly journal.
WALL, DAVID S. CYBERCRIME, MEDIA AND INSECURITY: The Shaping of Public Perceptions of cybercrime1. 2008,
http://www.researchgate.net/profile/David_Wall8/publication/228242264_Cybercrime_Media_and_Insecurity_The_Shaping_of_Public_Perceptions_of_Cybercrime/links/54d0b4ca0cf29ca81102d64c.pdf.In-text Citation
This paper is about how serious cybercrime is and how is it evolving. I am using this in my conclusion and introduction to explain the importance of my issue. It’s a scholarly journal.
Kontostathis, April. Text Mining and Cybercrime. 2008, webpages.ursinus.edu/akontostathis/TextMining2009BookChapter.pdf.
This article is about how people are doing sexual scams online. How they use your information and convince you into cyberbullying. I am using this as an effect of cybercrime and how important is it to be aware. It’s a scholarly journal.
SCHENK, ALLISON M. “Prevalence, Psychological Impact, and Coping of Cyberbully Victims Among College Students.” Https://Www.researchgate.net/Profile/Allison_Schenk/Publication/233150757_Prevalence_Psychological_Impact_and_Coping_of_Cyberbully_Victims_Among_College_Students/Links/547e76de0cf2de80e7cc57dd.Pdf, 2012
This article is about how students who go through cyberbully, and are deeply affected and end up into things like suicide or mental illnesses. I’m using this as an after effect of cybercrime in my paper. It’s a scholarly journal.

cybercrime-100534917-large