Quick Write

Take two minutes to write something you can share with us about Hidden Intellectualism.

Graff “Hidden Intellectualism” (264)

In the article “Hidden Intellectualism,” Gerald Graff argues that schools should encourage students to write about subjects that interests them. While passion about a subject does not necessarily mean they will write well about it, they can benefit from reflective and analytical writing about subjects they care about.

Nonacademic subjects can be “more intellectual than school” (267).

What does he mean by intellectual here? Look at paragraph 10 on page 267.

Real intellectuals turn any subject, however lightweight it may seem, into grist for their mill through thoughtful questions they bring to it, whereas a dullard will find a way to drain the interest out of the richest subject (265).

Do you agree with this statement? Why?

  • Who is his audience?
  • What is his purpose?

Give me the student anytime who writes a sharply argued, sociologically acute analysis of an issue in Source over the student who writes a life­less explication of Hamlet or Socrates’ Apology (270).

Ethos

Ethos is about values. In rhetoric we connect ethos to character, credibility, and trustworthiness. At their core, these concepts have to do with values. We tend to believe and trust those individuals who exemplify the values we cherish, who live the sort of life that we would want to live. Ethos Handout from University of Maryland

Ethos is inferred, NOT possessed. Five strategies for persuading through character.

  1. Personal info
  2. Sources
  3. Identification with Audience
  4. Point of View
  5. Balanced Presentation

5 Ways to Persuade with Character (Ethos) | How to Craft an Argument

Presidential Hats

Trump in Cowboy Hat
Obama in Cowboy Hat
Bush in Cowboy Hat

intermission

Using Rhetoric Notes

Logos

  • Logical
  • History
  • Facts
  • Statistics
  • Evidence
  • Authority/Pros
  • Background
  • Include the Conversation

Ethos

  • Research
  • Unbiased

Pathos

  • Emotional
  • Storytelling
  • So What?

Understanding Audience

Audience is quite possibly the most important thing to consider when writing an argument. You need to appeal to them, understand their problems, values, and beliefs, in order to convince them of your point of view.

  • Who your audience is should influence how you present your argument.
  • Who your audience is should influence how you present yourself.
  • Who is your audience?
  • Determine what is important to your audience. What do they really care about? What do they value?
  • Are your reasons in line with those values?

Arguing a Solution

  1. Position. Take a clear position on an arguable topic.
  2. Reasons. Develop main reasons, keeping audience in mind.
  3. Evidence. Support all reasons with strong research.
  4. Opposition. Acknowledge the opposing argument and take it out.

Sample Essays

Clicking Originality Away: Social Media’s Effect On Young Female’s Self Esteem

Papers Please! The Illegal Immigration Problem

Creating Structure

Structure is very important to making an argument. It needs to be deliberate and well organized. You cannot come across as being all over the place. An argument needs order in order for the audience to follow along.

Here is one possible outline to use to build your paper:

  1. Position (thesis)
  2. Background
  3. Reason with evidence
  4. Reason with evidence
  5. Reason with evidence
  6. Reason with evidence
  7. Counterargument with refutation
  8. Conclusion with so what question addressing audience

Outline Template

  1. Problem/Background
  2. Position/solution
  3. Reason 1 + evidence
  4. Reason 2 + evidence
  5. Reason 3 + evidence
  6. Conclusion

Homework

  1. Rough Draft of your argument essay
  2. Outline of your argument essay.
  3. Read Chapter 7 (108-117)
  4. Read Exit West Chapters 1 & 2 (3-35)