Today we will be peer reviewing the Solution Argument essay.
4 Ways to Persuade with Emotion (Pathos)
- Concrete Examples
- Connotative Diction
- Metaphors and Similes
Appeals to pathos target the link between audience members and their values.
When we act on our values, we experience emotions like happiness, pride, satisfaction, etc. When we do not, we often feel shame, fear, or anger. The same goes for the actions of people around us: we are often pleased when the actions of people around us align with our values and angry when they don’t.
Appeals to Emotion
Images can be used to instill an emotional response in the audience. Even implied images in text can be very emotionally powerful. A description of blood stained clothes draws certain emotions in a reader.
Lawyers know how important visuals can be. They dress their defendants in suits and ties to make them seem more credible.
Types of emotional appeals:
- appeal to pity
- appeal to fear
- appeal to self-interest
- identity prejudice
Would you persuade, speak of Interest, not Reason. – Benjamin Franklin
For the problem solution, figure out how to use pathos to get the audience interested.
Who is the audience?
What appeals will work with them?
What images will help make your argument?
Pick either the introduction or the conclusion to revise. Work on adding vibrant language to the paragraph. Experiment with rhetorical deviceslike:
- Parallelism – refers to using elements in sentences that are grammatically similar or identical in structure, sound, meaning, or meter. This technique adds symmetry, effectiveness and balance to the written piece. Read more at yourdictionary.com
- Repetition – is when words or phrases are repeated. Used to create rhythm and bring attention to an idea. Examples
- Rhetorical Questions – a question asked in order to create a dramatic effect or to make a point rather than to get an answer. Read more
- Analogy – a comparison between two things, typically for the purpose of explanation or clarification.
- Metaphor – is a figure of speech which makes an implicit, implied or hidden comparison between two things that are unrelated but share some common characteristics.
Annoying as nails on a chalkboard.
There are plenty of fish in the sea.
Shall I compare thee to a Summer’s day?
The beautiful sunset.
The sun doesn’t actually set, we rotate away from it on our globe and it only appears that way.
After you have revised your own intro or conclusion get together with a partner or two and read your paragraph to them. Reading out loud helps with speaking in vibrant sentences.
If you do not have any rhetorical devices or are having trouble, read the paragraph to your partners and they can help you with suggestions.
Think of different ways to deliver this paragraph to your audience. What would make it more effective? What will make them agree with you? What will get their attention?
Don’t be boring! Get creative and be considerate of others. Take turns reading out loud and help each other by sharing ideas.
Check their citations. Do they look correct? Are they missing any citations?
Peer edit the same way you revise your own work. Pay attention to global issues first. Don’t worry about grammar or sentence structure yet. Focus on improving and clarifying the ideas.
Be specific in identifying problems or opportunities. Explain what the problem you see if. Avoid vague language like “awkward.” Explain what it is that is awkward and give suggestions for how to improve.
Offer suggestions for improvement. If they are not mentioning a major counterargument, suggest it for them to address. If a point is unclear, explain how they can clarify it.
Praise what is genuinely good in the paper. No false praise. If you like a particular point or passage, let them know.
Use proofreading symbols, if you know them. Otherwise, mark up the paper directly so that they will have a reference from which to revise their work.
Keep comments tactful. Treat other’s work as you would like to have your efforts treated. Stay on topic and don’t be mean or harsh, that is not productive.
Intro to Fallacies
Fallacies are connected to the different appeals: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos.
- Ethos is appeals to credibility or character
- Logos is appeals to logic and reason
- Pathos is appeals to feelings or emotions.
Appealing to ethos or pathos is not in itself a fallacy, only appealing to them or using them unethically is. Here is an example of a fallacy used to persuade.
Why do we say this is a fallacy?
- Argument: A conclusion together with the premises that support it.
- Premise: A reason offered as support for another claim.
- Conclusion: A claim that is supported by a premise.
- Valid: An argument whose premises genuinely support its conclusion.
- Unsound: An argument that has at least one false premise.
- Fallacy: An argument that relies upon faulty reasoning.
- Booby-trap: An argument that, while not a fallacy itself, might lead an inattentive reader to commit a fallacy.
This is a great resource for further reading on fallacies and how they are not so simple. The article lists 223 of the most common fallacies.
I do not expect you to know them all or to never use any. Fallacies are controversial. We appreciate logic and honesty in Western rhetorical thinking and that is at odds with many fallacies.
Fallacies are not necessarily wrong, they work very well and are very good at persuading people. Fallacies are considered unethical and so we try to avoid them. They are thought of as flaws in thought, tricks, and sneaky uses of persuasion to convince others.