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Bullying is an issue that has easily expanded throughout the years and affects all of America as well as the whole world. “Bullying involves teasing, insulting, tormenting, intimidating, or being verbally or physically aggressive toward a victim. Bullying behavior may also be indirect, taking the form of rumors, social exclusion, nasty notes, and other insidious means. Bullying is typically repetitive in nature, with bullies targeting victims repeatedly.” (Knox,72). According to Knox bullying can be in any form but in the end they all have a negative effect on our youth later translating these detrimental effects onto adulthood too. Bullying takes advantage of victims that are perceived of being inferior to the bully causing the victim to feel helpless. When most children are being bullied, they feel it is not safe to talk to anyone about it. Adults need to help change that. “The bully-victim interaction is characterized by an imbalance of power; that is, the victim is or feels incapable of defending him-or herself, and the bully is or is perceived to be more powerful than the victim.” (Knox,72). Bullying can be direct or indirect nowadays there is more ways than ever before to bully people so education on the subject is needed to help the prevention of this problem. The biggest causes of bullying are physically and psychologically. In the eBook human diseases and conditions, the authors say “bullying can cause serious—and potentially long-lasting—physical, psychological, emotional, social, and academic harm to both the victim and the perpetrator.” (Donna Batten ,Etal 311.).Easy ways to start applying anti-bullying organizations includes taking action instead of dismissing it as an act of growing up or learning how to defend yourself in society we must recognize the gravity of this matter to prevent or even greatly decrease bullying by implementing a conversation about it, and integrating different methods and programs in everyday life to help the issue. 

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The fact that now there is countless ways to bully was brought up and this plays a major role in explaining the fact that “ At least a quarter to a third of all school-age children bully others, witness bullying, or are bullied.”(Blood , 3).Not only is there countless ways to get bullied but there is also not always a clear sign that someone is being bullied because kids learn how to hide it when it becomes so common. There are primarily four main types of bullying “The first is physical bullying: being punched, pushed, shoved, “lockered” and the like. The second is verbal bullying: being joked about, criticized or ridiculed. The third is relational bullying: being ostracized through malicious rumors, gossip and exclusion. And the fourth is cyber bullying: malicious texting or postings about a person on social media sites” (Blood, 3,4). Modern age school children face this crisis worse than any generation before because they cannot escape the terrible torment whether it is at school, home, etc. This bullying can come from people the victim may know or complete strangers, but the effect is the same. Physical and Verbal bullying are the most common in face to face interactions. Relational bullying can happen in person, but it is not always straight forwards it can be interpreted by body language or intent. This method can be confused and not be considered bullying when it is. Cyber bullying is regularly not something that is seen in real life it is done through the use of technology so it can easily be a mystery of who is suffering this type of bully unless you come across it online or hear of it. All these varieties of bullying need to be watched for in order to form safe, healthy environments for our youth. Almost all people who suffer one of these forms of bullying also deal with another or all of these in person attacks and on the internet. 

Factors than can expose bully’s include aggressive behavior, negative feelings toward others, or a child engaging in disruptive behaviors etc. Bullying is seen to be more common in young boys than girls but of course both participate in the act of bullying at school or outside of. This terrible crisis must be eliminated by recognition of the warning signs and after the victims to receive the help needed. Bullying is an act that is learned from others, so we also need to learn how not to bully as well as what to do to prevent it properly if it does occur. A victim that is being bullied and doesn’t confront his/her issues with the situation can lead to worse complications it is important to seek help. The effects of not dealing with pent up feelings or emotions about the bullying can lead to the harm of oneself, one’s education, health, peers, school, etc. If these signs are not recognized by a peer, parent, or supportive elder a toxic cycle can occur of the previous victim turning into the next bully in the future for self-satisfaction. Clear signs of a young person that might be getting bullied include low self-esteem, being a loner, and shyness. In the book Bullying in American schools “Parents are encouraged to engage children in dialogue about bullying to be cognizant of signs of victimization” (Espelange, Swearer ,137). It is important for a group effort to be aware of signs and know how to approach with help. “Teachers recognize the signs…,such as looking fearful, avoiding bathrooms or certain part of classroom, not eating lunch, developing physical ailments, and becoming tearful,”(Espelenge ,Swearer,316). Adults, teachers, and peers need to look out for these indications of trouble in the lives of those around to better their life positively for a change. 

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The steps that are needed for a positive change in the injured party’s lives are not difficult anyone can contribute to the helpful cause of preventing bullying. According the article Bullying “children need to understand what it is and how to prevent it. Bullying should be discussed before it occurs, so that children are prepared, can practice their responses, and react appropriately. Asking children about their lives at school, other kids in their classes, and whether anyone is being picked on or bullied encourages communication. Children should know that being bullied is not their fault and that they should not be afraid to ask an adult for help. They should be encouraged to report bullying, stand up to kids who bully… Encouraging friendships helps prevent bullying, since loners are more likely to be bullied.” (Donna Batten ,Etal 311.) Many parents and schools implement this ideology in hopes of making a positive influence in the youth’s childhood. Getting conversations started on this issue spreads diversity and understanding of differences leading to more open thinking with less incidents of intimidation.  Other than just promising that the children will understand, converse about, and make the effort to stop bullying most schools and social centers have anti bullying programs integrated into the daily schedule. “Anti-bullying programs significantly reduce bullying perpetration and bullying victimization . These results suggest that anti-bullying programs reduce school-bullying perpetration by approximately 19–20% and school-bullying victimization by approximately 15–16%.”. (Gaffney, Ttofi ,Etal) It is crucial that from a young age children learn about diversity and how to react to bully’s or those who seem to be getting bullied. The prevention of bullying requires help from teachers, friends, peers, parents, and even strangers. Most teachers and peers witness bullying so if we all make an effort change can happen. It is said that at least 50 percent of bullying stops when someone intervenes.(Blood ,6) Random acts of kindness go a long way which is why bully buster programs as well as cyber bullying awareness programs in schools are crucial to help stop the bully and aid the target of the bully. Peer aggression is seen nowadays too commonly, so most people don’t do anything to help. When it is as simple as learning how to handle bullying in school by helping the victim and reporting the bully. “the classroom can prevent bullying by first strengthening the natural supports for effective peer interactions.”(Espelenge ,Swearer,316) If the process of learning how to handle bullying begins as early as elementary school the future generations can stop bullying 

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The teaching of what a bully is and the effects they make on themselves as well as others is the right step to end bullying and its detrimental effects. All the efforts and programs influence the children who are empathetic and caring of others to create a snowball effect of positivism. “The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines bullying as a form of youth violence.” (Donna Batten ,Etal 311.)Bullies are just children who have deeper psychological issues that need to be discussed and aided with help from everyone involved . The more we help the victims of bullying and the bully the greater difference we make in decreasing the amount of youth violence and peer aggression in the world. Bully’s and victims need proper handling because things can get out of hand. It is important to be cautious and caring when approaching the situation this is the very reason why anti bullying programs are necessary to add into youth curriculum everywhere. These programs create a realization of the harm it causes and how the course of bullying can effortlessly be stopped or changed for the better. 

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Work Cited Page  

“Bullying.” Human Diseases and Conditions, edited by Donna Batten, et al., 3rd ed., vol. 1, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2017, pp. 311-320. Gale eBooks,    https://link- gale.com.chaffey.idm.oclc.org/apps/doc/CX3630000061/GVRL?u=ranc95197&sid=GVRL&xid=d89c0514. Accessed 11 Sept. 2019. 

Blood, Gordon. Bullying Be Gone.     2014, web.b.ebscohost.com.chaffey.idm.oclc.org/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=8dacdc55-e79d-4f24-8c81-dad82c5b4dad%40sessionmgr103. 

Espelange, Dorothy L., and Susan M. Swearer. “Bullying in American Schools.” Google Books, 2004, books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=fqmPAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=bullying%2Bprevention&ots=CQ7AxwTv5o&sig=AQFy5sf7-I_071GXUCXmVvPNwpI#v=onepage&q&f=false. 

Gaffney, Ttofi, et al. “Evaluating the Effectiveness of School-Bullying Prevention Programs: An Updated Meta-Analytical Review.” Aggression and Violent Behavior, Pergamon, 20 July 2018, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359178918300727. 

Knox, Michele. “Bullying.” Child Development, edited by Neil J. Salkind, Macmillan Reference USA, 2002, p. 72. Gale eBookshttps://link-gale-com.chaffey.idm.oclc.org/apps/doc/CX3401000057/GVRL? u=ranc95197&sid=GVRL&xid=ea200056. Accessed 11 Sept. 2019. 

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