Quick Write

What green or sustainability issues, problems, or initiatives can we tackle in our area to make this a better place?

Research Argument Topics

For our project, we will be arguing solutions to sustainability problems. You can also choose another topic, make sure to run it by me first.

Intro to Arguments/Rhetoric

Language is an art form. Here is the Wikipedia definition of Rhetoric.

Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

Aristotle’s definition of rhetoric

“The faculty of observing, in any given case, the available means of persuasion

ethos pathos

Ethos: Appeals to Ethics, Credibility or Character. Ethics, ethical, trustworthiness or reputation, style/tone. The credibility of the speaker persuades.

Pathos: Appeals to Emotion. Emotional or imaginative impact, stories, values. Uses emotional response to persuade an audience.

Logos: Appeals to logic. Persuade by reason and evidence.

Logos

  1. Evidence, S.T.A.R.
    • Sufficient
    • Typical
    • Acceptable
    • Relevant
  2. Rhetorical Questions
  3. Signposts
    • Transitions and connections
  4. Pre-buttals
    • Anticipate objections and answering

Graff “Hidden Intellectualism”

In the article “Hidden Intellectualism,” Gerald Graff argues that schools should encourage students to write about subjects that interests them. While passion about a subject does not necessarily mean they will write well about it, they can benefit from reflective and analytical writing about subjects they care about.

Nonacademic subjects can be “more intellectual than school” (267).

What does he mean by intellectual here? Look at paragraph 10.

Real intellectuals turn any subject, however lightweight it may seem, into grist for their mill through thoughtful questions they bring to it, whereas a dullard will find a way to drain the interest out of the richest subject (265).

Do you agree with this statement? Why?

  • Who is his audience?
  • What is his purpose?
  • What is his argument?
  • What evidence does he provide?

Give me the student anytime who writes a sharply argued, sociologically acute analysis of an issue in Source over the student who writes a life­less explication of Hamlet or Socrates’ Apology (270).

intermission

Quick Write

Why do we use sources?

Critical Thinking and Research

  • Identify important problems.
  • Explore relevant issues.
  • Evaluate available evidence.
  • Consider the implications of the decisions.

Critical thinking is NOT collecting information to support established conclusion.

  • Survey, considering as many perspectives as possible.
  • Analyze, identifying and then separating out the parts of the problem.
  • Evaluate, judging the merit of various ideas, claims, and evidence.

Why Use Sources?

  • To understand an issue
  • See what has come before
  • To find the facts
  • To inform and persuade your audience

You need to understand that research is connected with ethos, an appeal that establishes credibility with readers.

Evaluating Your Sources

Remember the Acronym CRAAP

  • C current
  • R relevant
  • A author
  • A accurate
  • P purpose

Ask yourself: “Am I choosing sources that represent a range of ideas, not simply ones that support my opinion?”